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Title page for ETD etd-01152018-141952


Type of Document Dissertation
Author Sivley, Robert Michael
URN etd-01152018-141952
Title Constraint on Rare Protein-Coding Variation: Pathogenicity Prediction and Phenotypic Discovery
Degree PhD
Department Biomedical Informatics
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
John A. Capra Committee Chair
Antonis Rokas Committee Member
Jens Meiler Committee Member
Jonathan Kropski Committee Member
William S. Bush Committee Member
Keywords
  • selective constraint
  • spatial constraint
  • structural biology
  • human genetics
Date of Defense 2017-12-04
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Patterns of genetic variation along the human genome provide insight into functional and evolutionary constraints on different loci. Quantifying these patterns of constraint improves our ability to identify functional regions and interpret the phenotypic effects of genetic mutations. Building on exome-sequencing data from tens of thousands of individuals, we are now able to quantify constraint on a large scale. In this work, we explore three avenues by which constraint on rare protein-coding variation can be used to better understand human biology and elucidate the genetic drivers of disease. We first present a novel algorithm to classify variants of unknown significance (VUS) using patterns of spatial constraint on disease-causing variation in protein structure. We demonstrate its utility in classifying VUS in RTEL1, a helicase protein, from patients with familial interstitial pneumonia. Next, we quantify spatial constraint on somatic mutations in 3D protein structures and identify patterns indicative of driver mutations in several proteins. Finally, we perform phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) to interrogate the phenotypic impact of rare protein-coding variants in genes intolerant to loss-of-function mutations. This dissertation makes significant advances in our understanding of how evolutionary constraint on protein-coding genetic variants is related to their contribution to human disease. In particular, we leveraged this progress to develop powerful approaches to variant pathogenicity prediction, the detection of putative driver mutations in cancer, and the identification of novel phenotype associations for highly constrained genes.
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